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Functional Communication Training
(This list is preliminary: Any suggestions for additions are welcome)

Bird, F., Dores, P.A., Moniz, D., & Robinson, J. (1989). Reducing severe aggressive and self-injurious behaviors with functional communication training. American Journal on Mental Retardation 94(1), 37-48.

Brady, N. C., Saunders, K. J., & Spradlin, J. E. (1994). A conceptual analysis of request teaching procedures for individuals with severely limited verbal repertoires. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 12, 43-52.

Carr, E.G., & Carlson, J.I. (1993).  Reduction of severe behavior problems in the community using a multicomponent treatment approach.   Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 157-172.

Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 111-126.

Carr, E.G., Levin, L., McConnachie, G., Carlson, J.I., Kemp, D.C., & Smith, C.E. (1994). Communication-based intervention for problem behavior: A user's guide for producing positive change. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Carr, E.G., Levin, L., McConnachie, G., Carlson, J.I., Kemp, D.C.,  Smith, C.E., & Magito-McLaughlin, D. (1999).  Comprehensive multisituational intervention for problem behavior in the community: Long-term maintenance and social validation.  Journal of Positive Behavior Support, 1, 5-25.

Day, H.M., Horner, R.H., & O'Neill, R.E. (1994) Multiple functions of problem behaviors: Assessment and intervention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 279-289.

Derby, K. M., Wacker, D. P., Berg, W., DeRaad, A., Ulrich, S., Asmus, J., Harding, J., Prouty, A., Laffey, P., & Stoner, E. A. (1997). The long-term effects of functional communication training in home settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 507-531.

Durand, V.M. (1990). Severe behavior problems: A functional communication training approach. New York: Guilford Press.

Durand, V. M., Berotti, & Weiner, J. S. (1993). Functional communication training: Factors affecting effectiveness, generalization, and maintenance. In J. Reichle & D. P. Wacker (Eds.), Communicative alternatives to challenging behavior (pp. 317-340). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Durand, V. M., & Carr, E. G. (1992). An analysis of maintenance following functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 777-794.

Durand, V. M., & Carr, E. G. (1991). Functional communication training to reduce challenging behavior: Maintenance and application in new settings.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 251-264.

Fisher, W. W., Kuhn, D. E., & Thompson, R. H. (1998). Establishing discriminative control of responding using functional and alternative reinforcers during functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 543-560.

Fisher, W., Piazza, C., Cataldo, M., Harrell, R., Jefferson, G., & Conner, R. (1993). Functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 23-36.

Fisher, W.W., Thompson, R.H., Bowman, L.G., Hagopian, L.P., & Krug, A. (1999, in press).  Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training. Behavior Modification.

Hagopian, L. P., Fisher, W. W., Sullivan, M. T., Acquisto, J., & LeBlanc, L. A. (1998). Effectiveness of functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment: A summary of 21 inpatient cases. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 211-235.

Horner, R.H., Day, H.M., Sprague, J.R., O'Brien, M., & Heathfield, L.T. (1991).  Interspersed requests: A nonaversive procedure for reducing aggression and self-injury during instruction.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 265-268.

Kahng, S., Iwata, B. A., DeLeon, I. G., & Worsdell, A. S. (1997). Evaluation of the "control over reinforcement" component in functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 267-277.

Lalli, J. S., Casey, S., & Kates, K. (1995). Reducing escape behavior and increasing task completion with functional communication training, extinction, and response chaining.  Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 261-268.

Lattal, K.A. (1984).  Signal functions in delayed reinforcement.  Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 30, 11-17.

Reid, D. H., & Hurlbut, B. (1977). Teaching nonvocal communication skills to multihandicapped retarded adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 591-603.

Schepis, M. M., Reid, D. H., Behrmann, M. M., & Sutton, K. A. (1998). Increasing communicative interactions of young children with autism using a voice output communication aid and naturalistic teaching. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 561-578.

Shirley, M. J., Iwata, B. A., Kahng, S., Mazaleski, J. L., & Lerman, D. C. (1997). Does functional communication training compete with ongoing contingencies of reinforcement? An analysis during response acquisition and maintenance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 93-104.

Shukla, S., & Albin, R. W. (1996). Effects of extinction alone and extinction plus functional communication training on covariation of problem behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 565-568.

Wacker, D. P., Steege, M. W., Northup, J., Sasso, G., Berg, W., Reimers, T., Cooper, L., Cigrand, K., & Donn, L. (1990). A component analysis of functional communication training across three topographies of severe behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 417-429.

We would like to thank the following people for suggesting some of the citations included:  Heather Strong, Charles Lund, Jane Carlson, and Ted Schoneberger.


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