Let me preface my suggestions with some
general comments about research findings as the relate to best practices for discipline
with antisocial students. Discipline should be viewed as an instrument with its primary
purpose to allow effective instruction and learning. Proactive approaches are essential.
This translates into knowing your students and staying ahead of them and their problems
with positive and constructive problem solving that serves to prevent problems before they
get out-of-hand. This means the use of learning objectives which provide the student with
new and appropriate skills to replace the problem behaviors and lots of positive
reinforcement for both the absence of the problem behavior and the exercise of the new
- Support across staff in implementing discipline is essential. This means that staff do
not ever undercut each other in front of any students.
- Maintenance of a consistent, predictable school environment is essential to any progress
for antisocial students.
- Setting high expectations for the students. One of the most serious mistakes is becoming
acclimated to the problematic behavior and students and attributing their behavior to
outside factors over which they have little or no control. Setting high standards and
taking responsibility among staff sets a model for the students and students usually
perform substantially better as a result.
- Clear, functional rules and expectations that make sense, improve the learning
environment and which have positive benefits for the student if followed are essential.1
- Finally, accountability for outcomes is mandatory for any positive program to work with
antisocial students. Any plan must include a systematic data-management program to provide
The first suggestion that I have is that a set of rules be developed for any classroom
that has antisocial students. These rules must be promulgated clearly to each
student and posted visibly within the room itself. I usually offer a set of 4 such rules
(no threats or violence, no drug talk, no sex talk, and no profanity) as the absolute
minimum starting point. Often, the classroom staff ask if it would be appropriate for the
students to be solicited for input on additional rules. I caution them that they do not
want too many such rules but that 1 or 2 additional student generated rules might well
increase the acceptance of these new limits. Guidelines for developing such rules are:
1) Limit the number of expectations initially to four to six:
- State the expectations in positive terms using Clear, Concrete, and Concise
language using as few words as possible.
- Identify specific behaviors to illustrate the range of acceptable variations.
- Identify clear positive and negative examples to illustrate each expectation.
2) Define a process and time lines for identifying expectations:
- Specify who participates in the development if expectations
- Specify how suggestions are to be offered and worded
- Specify how each expectation is going to be agreed upon and how everyone involved will
learn about the meaning of each.
The second broad suggestion for the antisocial classroom is that a variety of
privileges be identified. It is essential that these be framed for
the students as earned privileges and not as lost rights. Such privileges must be both
short term/immediate (that day), intermediate (weekly), and long-term (quarterly) to be
maximally effective and allow the student the opportunity to test limits and still be able
to recover. During my visits I spend a good deal of time observing and asking lots of
questions so that I might suggest one or two obvious privileges for which
appropriate behavior can be required of the students. A variety of privileges must be
identified in order for there always to be a motivator for each students appropriate
behavior. Only the classroom staff, administrators, and students know the circumstances
well enough to decide what the range of such privileges might be at any given school.
Frequently, in addition to the privileges, there is a list of proscribed behaviors which
always "drop" a student immediately to the lowest level (often called
"Red" or "Restricted" level), these often include:
- Harming Self or Other
- Property Damage
- Tobacco/Drug talk, use, or possession
- Physical Aggression or Threats (there is no such thing as a threat that is a
- Verbal Aggression or Threats
- Leaving School Grounds
- Other Behavior determined to be dangerous or harmful
Third, the combination of privileges and a level system means frequent and objective
feedback is required for each student regarding their behavior. Many schools divide the
day into hourly segments (and in some instances even ½ hour segments) with points across
5-6 classroom-wide goals and 2-3 personal goals. Typical classroom wide goals include:
- Demonstrates Honesty
- Follows Rules and Expectations
- Shows Respect for Self and Others
- Exhibits Safe Thinking/Behavior
- Maximizes Abilities/Independence
Additionally, personal goals for each student should be added to tailor the system and
are typically based on a combination of long-standing needs on the part of the student and
recent areas of concern/failure. Examples include such things as "no talking
out", "keeping hands/feet to self", "respect for authority", and
"absence of abusive language".
Providing adaptive strategies for the student to meet their behavior goal/expectation
is the first point of intervention. However, if a student continually has problems with a
particular goal or expectation there are a number of strategies, in addition to the
privileges discussed above, which may be employed - some of which include:
- Change teaching strategy
- Individual student conference (hallway 1:1)
- Corrective action plan (agreed to by student)
- Time out
- Separation from peers
- Removal of adult attention
- Deliver a warning and offer the student a choice with consequences for each explained
Fourth, physical arrangement of the classroom significantly impacts the success or
failure in achieving your behavior goals. Examples include:
- Independent work requires an area with minimum distractions, therefore your use of
individual desks is important.
- Storage of materials is a problem in all classrooms. Materials should be placed in low
traffic areas to avoid distractions but allow relatively free access.
- The teachers desk should be out of the flow of traffic and allow for the maximizing of
both personal safety and confidentiality of materials.
- A notice board (not the blackboard) should be in a highly visible high traffic area of
the classroom, but should also be positioned so it does not divert attention from
Fifth, transitions are very difficult for antisocial students. Transitions are
frequently a time of little or no structure and ambiguity for the student. In order to
minimize behavior problems a variety of mechanisms for increasing structure for
transitions often help.
- Establish a schedule, not merely for block or class changes but for transitions between
types of activities for each period.
- Post the schedule so that students know what to expect.
- Establish procedures for how each transition is accomplished and make certain that the
students are aware of these expectations.
Sixth, antisocial students are often seen as low in "self-esteem". One method
of addressing this is to offer frequent, realistic, and constructive feedback on both
successes and areas of concern. Actual mastery of a goal and the appropriate
acknowledgment of that success by a adult will lead to the development of genuine
"self-esteem" or a sense of accomplishment and go a long way to improving
"attitudes" among antisocial students. A caution here is that antisocial
students are accomplished at sniffing out BS and therefore you must focus only on real
accomplishments. Perhaps the most powerful strategy for implementing classroom
expectations is to frequently reinforce students who exhibit appropriate behaviors.
It is essential that the classroom staff clearly distinguish between cooperation and
acquisition of academic skills - both forms of achievement need to be equally acknowledged
with antisocial students.
Finally, all correction interventions with antisocial students should contain a series
of steps in which the least intrusive step is followed first and more intrusive measures
come into play only if the problem behavior persists. Students, particularly antisocial
students have a real need to be able to predict what an adults response will be (within a
range). An example of such a plan:
- Remove attention from the student who is displaying low level inappropriate
behavior, and acknowledge other students nearby who are exhibiting the expected behavior.
- Redirect the student to the expected behavior with a gesture or verbal prompt, cite the
classroom rule being violated, and be sure to acknowledge subsequent cooperation and
displays of the expected behavior from the student.
- Secure the students attention and clearly inform him or her of the expected
behavior, provide immediate opportunities for practice, and acknowledge the changed
behavior when it occurs.
- Deliver a brief warning in a matter-of-fact manner by providing the student an
opportunity to choose between displaying the expected behavior or experiencing a penalty
or loss of privilege.
- Deliver the penalty or loss of privilege in a matter-of-fact manner and do not argue
with the student about details of the penalty.
There are a number of additional areas which I could go into, however I feel that the
suggestions offered have the best chance of working and are the most fundamental to
decreasing suspensions within the antisocial classroom. I will be happy to expand or
elaborate on any area which I have failed to express clearly.
1- A clear set of definitions
for what entails a Minor School Infraction, a Serious School Infraction, and
Illegal Behavior needs to be developed. Your definition must conform to both Board
policy and local, State and Federal laws.
Today's Resource Tip:
ERIC (The National Library of Education's - Education Resources
Information Center) for a search of a massive storehouse
of information on this and other topics related to special education, and regular