Indep. Ed. Evals (IEE)
Indep. Ed. Evals (IEE)
Insurance Policy PDF
Is ABA Experimental?
Resources in seeking
Insurance support for
Open Ga Autism
Open Ga Autism
Sleep - Not
As a Parent -
Retirees, and TriCare
Briefing the Teacher
Does RU Certify
BCBA-D What is
How to answer when
insurance says ABA
EIBI and Cost
What is BCBA
What is the
Sign vs. PECS
ADHD or Sleep?
A good Psych
is Asperger's Syndrome?
The answer to that question is
more complicated than most people would like it to be. There is some
controversy about exactly what constitutes Asperger's Syndrome (or Asperger's
Disorder per the DSM-IV). When the criteria for AS were put into the
DSM-IV the folks that do traditional Autism saw AS people as having no
language problems. The problem with that is that the folks that work
with AS people every day generally disagree and argue that there are commonly
issues with pragmatics and social language evident. That is merely one
area of contention in the field - and that doesn't even bring in what the
people with AS themselves have to say on the topic. Here is another area
to be careful of when looking at Asperger's - many claim that above average
intelligence is a hallmark of AS. The problem is that there is no
research supporting this claim. The requirement, at least in some
diagnostic systems, is for intelligence in the average to above average range
(which means not in the intellectually delayed or mentally retarded
range). So, be careful of anyone that says things as if they have the
only right answer when it comes to issues around Asperger's.
Inconsistencies in the way the
term Asperger's has been used and the lack, until the 1990's, of recognized
official definitions has made it difficult to interpret the research available
on Asperger's. Even today, some professionals will use the term to refer to
people with autism who have IQs in the normal range, or to adults with autism,
or to PDD-NOS. All this despite recent official definitions that
emphasize differences from autism, e.g. in terms of better communication
(particularly verbal) skills.
- A qualitative advantage in social interaction,
as manifested by a majority of the following:
- Peer relationships characterized by absolute
loyalty and impeccable dependability
- Free of sexist, "age-ist", or
culturalist biases; ability to regard others at "face value"
- Speaking one’s mind irrespective of social
context or adherence to personal beliefs
- Ability to pursue personal theory or
perspective despite conflicting evidence
- Seeking an audience or friends capable of:
enthusiasm for unique interests and topics; consideration of details;
spending time discussing a topic that may not be of primary interest
- Listening without continual judgment or
- Interested primarily in significant
contributions to conversation; preferring to avoid "ritualistic small
talk" or socially trivial statements and superficial conversation.
- Seeking sincere, positive, genuine friends
with an unassuming sense of humour.
- Fluent in "Aspergerese", a social
language characterized by at least three of the following:
- A determination to seek the truth
- Conversation free of hidden meaning or agenda
- Advanced vocabulary and interest in words
- Fascination with word-based humour, such as
- Advanced use of pictorial metaphor
- Cognitive skills characterized by at least
four of the following:
- Strong preference for detail over gestalt
- Original, often unique perspective in problem
- Exceptional memory and/or recall of details
often forgotten or disregarded by others, for example: names, dates,
- Avid perseverance in gathering and cataloguing
information on a topic of interest
- Persistence of thought
- Encyclopaedic or "CD ROM" knowledge
of one or more topics
- Knowledge of routines and a focused desire to
maintain order and accuracy
- Clarity of values/decision making unaltered by
political or financial factors
- Additional possible features:
- Acute sensitivity to specific sensory
experiences and stimuli, for example: hearing, touch, vision, and/or smell
- Strength in individual sports and games,
particularly those involving endurance or visual accuracy, including rowing,
swimming, bowling, chess
- "Social unsung hero" with trusting
optimism: frequent victim of social weaknesses of others, while steadfast in
the belief of the possibility of genuine friendship
- Increased probability over general population
of attending university after high school
- Often take care of others outside the range of
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) Diagnostic Criteria - from the
American Psychiatric Association
A. Qualitative impairment
in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:
- Marked impairment in the use
of multiple nonverbal behaviours such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression,
body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction;
- Failure to develop peer
relationships appropriate to developmental level;
- A lack of spontaneous seeking
to share enjoyment, interests or achievements with other people (eg: by a
lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other
- Lack of social or emotional
B. Restricted repetitive
and stereotyped patterns of behaviour, interests, and activities, as manifested
by at least one of the following:
- Encompassing preoccupation
with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is
abnormal either in intensity or focus;
- Apparently inflexible
adherence to specific, non-functional routines or rituals;
- Stereotyped and repetitive
motor mannerisms (eg: hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex
- Persistent preoccupation with
parts of objects
C. The disturbance causes
clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important
areas of functioning.
D. There is no clinically significant general delay in language (eg:
single words used by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years).
E. There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive development or
in the development of age-appropriate self-help skills, adaptive behaviour
(other than social interaction), and curiosity about the environment in
F. Criteria are not met for another specific Pervasive Developmental
Disorder, or Schizophrenia.
Gillberg (1991) Diagnostic
impairment in reciprocal social interaction as manifested by at least two of the
- Inability to
interact with peers.
- Lack of
desire to interact with peers.
- Lack of
appreciation of social cues.
- Socially and
emotionally inappropriate behaviour.
narrow interest, as manifested by at least one of the following three:
- Exclusion of
- More rote
C. Speech and
language problems, as manifested by at least three of the following five:
development of language.
perfect expressive language.
- Odd prosody,
peculiar voice characteristics.
- Impairment of
comprehension, including misinterpretations of literal/implied meanings.
communication problems, as manifested by at least one of the following five:
- Limited use
clumsiness, as documented by poor performance on neurodevelopmental examination.
lack of any clinically significant delay in language or cognitive development.
Diagnosis requires that single words should have
developed by two years of age or earlier and that communicative phrases be used
by three years of age or earlier. Self-help skills, adaptive behaviour and
curiosity about the environment during the first three years should be at a
level consistent with normal intellectual development. However, motor milestones
may be somewhat delayed and motor clumsiness is usual (although not a necessary
diagnostic feature). Isolated special skills, often related to abnormal
preoccupations, are common, but are not required for diagnosis.
B. Qualitative impairments in reciprocal
social interaction (criteria as for autism).
Diagnosis requires demonstrable abnormalities in
at least 3 out of the following 5 areas:
- Failure adequately to use eye-to-eye gaze,
facial expression, body posture and gesture to regulate social interaction;
- Failure to develop (in a manner appropriate to
mental age, and despite ample opportunities) peer relationships that involve
a mutual sharing of interests, activities and emotions;
- Rarely seeking and using other people for
comfort and affection at times of stress or distress and/or offering comfort
and affection to others when they are showing distress or unhappiness;
- Lack of shared enjoyment in terms of vicarious
pleasure in other people's happiness and/or a spontaneous seeking to share
their own enjoyment through joint involvement with others;
- A lack of socio-emotional reciprocity as shown
by an impaired or deviant response to other people's emotions; and/or lack
of modulation of behaviour according to social context, and/or a weak
integration of social, emotional and communicative behaviours.
C. Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped
patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. (Criteria as for autism;
however it would be less usual for these to include either motor mannerisms or
preoccupations with part-objects or non-functional elements of play materials).
Diagnosis requires demonstrable abnormalities in
at least 2 out of the following 6 areas:
- An encompassing preoccupation with stereotyped
and restricted patterns of interest;
- Specific attachments to unusual objects;
- Apparently compulsive adherence to specific,
non-functional, routines or rituals;
- Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms
that involve either hand/finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole body
- Preoccupations with part-objects or
non-functional elements of play materials (such as their odour, the feel of
their surface/ or the noise/vibration that they generate);
- Distress over changes in small,
non-functional, details of the environment.
D. The disorder is not attributable to the
other varieties of pervasive developmental disorder; schizotypal disorder;
simple schizophrenia; reactive and disinhibited attachment disorder of
childhood; obsessional personality disorder; obsessive compulsive disorder.
Solitary, as manifested by at least two of the following four:
1. No close
2. Avoids others.
3. No interest in making friends.
4. A loner.
B. Impaired social
interaction, as manifested by at least one of the
others only to have own needs met.
2. A clumsy social approach.
3. One-sided responses to peers.
4. Difficulty sensing feelings of others.
5. Detached from feelings of others.
C. Impaired non-verbal
communication, as manifested by at least one
of the following seven:
2. Unable to read emotion from facial expressions of child.
3. Unable to give messages with eyes.
4. Does not look at others.
5. Does not use hands to express oneself.
6. Gestures are large and clumsy.
7. Comes too close to others.
D. Odd speech, as
manifested by at least two of the following six:
abnormalities in inflection.
2. talks too much.
3. talks too little.
4. lack of cohesion to conversation.
5. idiosyncratic use of words.
6. repetitive patterns of speech.
E. Does not meet criteria
for Autistic Disorder.